Review: Application of sorbents containing Prussian Blue drugs (BIFEZH type) in the areas that characterized to the uncomfotable ecological situation
(Adapted translation from source – Victor Remez, Ekaterinburg 2010, Proceedings of UniKhim, Issue 73, pp 143-147)
The main results of the use of Prussian Blue Drugs (PBD) in agricultural production in the areas affected by the Chernobyl accident, were presented at the Russian National Report "20 years after the Chernobyl disaster".  The report stated that: "... since 1993 in the contaminated areas of the Bryansk region, both in the public sector and in private households, launched a large-scale introduction of PBD. One of versions FSP is our product having the name BIFEZh.
The use of PBD (were processed from 500 thousand to more than a million animals per year) allowed to… ensure the preservation reached early the minimum volume of production of livestock products, which contain Cs-137 more than standard level.
Annual use of drugs reduces the cesium content to the standard level in more than 30 000 Tons of milk and 5 000 Tons of meat in slaughter weight. Thanks to the introduction of protective measures and the intensive use of PBD, production ofmilk that inappropriate to standards was reduced to the minimum quantities.
More information about using of PBD are available in the report on the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster: "The use of Prussian Blue to reduce the level of radioactive cesium contamination of milk and meat produced in the territories affected by the Chernobyl accident" (authors Alexakhin P.M., Firsakov S.K. et al.) . There's also present economic calculations and described the social consequences of the use of PBD.
In the section "Advantages" of this report (p. 16) the following is written: "It has been shown that the substances connecting caesium reduce pollution levels in meat and milk, and also in the crops fertilized subsequently by manure. The practical results achieved when using this method concern three main aspects: decrease in a radiological dose, economy of resources and social and psychological benefits.
Up to 20% of the contaminated areas are lands owned by small farmers, and land belonging to them are characterized by small size, low quality and poor access, so the application of traditional land decontamination procedures is uneconomic, difficult and impractical "(p.18).
It is for farms located on these lands, the use of Prussian blue (as PBD) is the most appropriate. Moreover, the use of phosphate binders costs about 10 times less than alternative (p.19).
Similar conclusions about the efficiency and economic feasibility of the use of PBD are presented in the optimization of long-term protection measures for rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated areas of the Bryansk region (Sanzharova P.I. et al.) .
Due to the high efficiency of the use of PBD it was included in theFederal Action Program "Overcoming the consequences of radiation accidents for the period up to 2010", where in section 3.3, item 3, stated: "It is envisaged the purchase and use of PBD in animal husbandry. The use of PBD in animal husbandry can reduce the Cs-137 content in milk up to 8 times in the meat up to 3 times. In the most contaminated areas of the Bryansk region contains about 100 thousand head of cattle in the public and private farms. Of these, 10 thousand heads without the use of PBD is not possible to obtain milk with the content of cesium-137, does not exceed the established norms".
However, in 2005, after the adjustment of the Action Program in the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Russian Federation, supplies funding of PBD was discontinued. Repeated appeals from Governor of the Bryansk region to Emergency Situations Ministry and the Russian Government about the resumption of supplies of PBD gets no avail . A statement about the dangers of criminal shipments of radioactive milk from the Bryansk region and the need to supply PBD into contaminated areas was made by “Rospotrebnadzor” office. Particularly acute situation are described in the appeals of director FGU "Bryanskvetradiologiya" Pasternak A.D. for various offices.
According to data of this organization which controls radioactive pollution of meat and dairy products in the Bryansk region, the content of Cs-137 was above norm in 39,4% of tests of milk of public farms and 22,9% of personal farms of Gordeevsky district, in 13,2% of public farms and 35,8% of personal farms, etc. .
According to calculations of specialists of Federal State Institution – FGU “Bryanskvetradiologiya” for receiving standardly pure milk from 10 thousand cows who are in critical farms of the Bryansk region it was necessary to buy for 2008 the compound feed containing PBD, for the sum of 20 million rubles (from them 1 million rubles is the cost of PBD).
However, more interesting to consider the problem of the use of PBD not only in critical economies, but also in the entire contaminated area of the Bryansk region, where there are about 100 000 cattle. Economy of these territories are weakened by the loss of personnel, social and psychological problems, low living standards and poor statistics of diseases (compared to whole Russia). If a state program with funding of 200 million rubles will be created, and the economy of the affected areas, where more than 300 thousand people will receive free feed containing phosphate binders, or "ecological feed", we can expect the following results:
• Preparation of pure animal products; • Reducing production costs and improving competitiveness; • Improvement of the population, improving their standard of living; • Reduced costs from the state budget on the treatment of people; • The return of abandoned land affected by the Chernobyl accident, into agricultural.
Costs of one inhabitant living in these areas are equal to about 800 rub/year (less than 3 rub/day). The state can realize such initiatives of the President of Russia on a concrete example as: investments into the human capital; input in production of agricultural products latest, patented in the EU and the USA of preparations PBD; creation of infrastructure of providing farms of affected areas with ecological compound feeds. Besides, this program really solves a number of problems of special importance, according to the national projects "Health" and "Agrarian and Industrial Complex" for the Bryansk region.
There is one more aspect of use of PBD. It is known that soil of considerable part of the territory of the Russian Federation, being under the influence of technogenic emissions and natural anomalies, high concentration of heavy metals contain. Metals get to forages, and then and to livestock products. It leads to diseases of animals and people, decrease in immunity, life expectancy reduction.
Application of PBD in farms of Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk areas and Tatarstan, has shown high efficiency of these preparations preventing intake of heavy metals from forages in end products of animal husbandry. It is established that PBD reduce contents in muscles of bull-calves of cadmium by 9 times, lead by 3,4 times (Sverdlovsk region) , the content of arsenic in a liver of cows to 340 times (Karabash, the Chelyabinsk Region), the content of nickel in milk by 40% (Tatarstan) . Decrease in toxic loading is followed by normalization of exchange processes. Content in blood of calcium, phosphorus and iron increases, cholesterol level decreases, the proteinaceous synthesizing function is normalized. The gain of live weight at bull-calves increases by 20 – 40% , at pigs for 15 – 20%, additional milk yield of cow's milk to 2 l a day .
Application of PBD is justified economically. Just at the expense of a gain of live mass of bull-calves and pigs or increase in milk yield of milk, for 1 ruble invested in PBD it is possible to get profits to 5 – 10 rubles. If to consider improvement of quality of production (considerable decrease in concentration of toxic substances), then the income will be even higher.
Long-term experience of application of PBD in the regions of Russia and Belarus contaminated with the Chernobyl emissions has shown that these preparations have the greatest effect when using as a part of compound feeds. The population of affected areas has to receive such compound feed free of charge. In Belarus on the state formula-feed plant compound feed with the maintenance of 0,6% of PB is made. Compound feed is given to animals at the rate of 0,5 kg of compound feed on the head in days. Applications from farms for the compound feed containing PBD, and their volume it is rigidly controlled by the staff of the Ministry of Emergency Situations and “Komchernobyl” of Belarus. Thanks to the forage containing PBD, farms of affected Belarusian areas receive environmentally friendly, qualitative meat-and-milk production at the lowered prime cost (compound feed free, animals healthy, efficiency high).
In Russia, PBD come to six radiation-unsuccessful areas of the Bryansk region according to applications of their administrations and on places preparations are distributed on the collectives and private enterprises having cattle. Many owners of animals at the wrong time or at all don't submit the application for FSP, violate instructions for their application, consider blue powder PBD as "some there chemistry", etc. It has led to repeated decrease in orders of PBD in the Bryansk region and, as a result, to substantial increase of amount of the milk and meat containing excess sizes of radionuclides of caesium.
The national projects "Health" and "Agrarian and Industrial Complex" will be earned much more effectively if in the country there is a network of productions of the compound feeds containing FSP. Supply with such "ecocompound feeds" of agricultural producers of ecologically unsuccessful regions of Russia will allow to accelerate considerably rates of a gain of meat and dairy production, to increase her quality and safety, to reduce prime cost, to make her more competitive that is necessary at Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization. And, in "The agreement on agriculture" the WTO (Appendix No. 2) is had several points on which the offered actions are the basis for release on reduction of state support of national agricultural producers.
1. "20 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe", Russian National Report of 2006.
2. "The use of Prussian Blue to reduce radiocesium contamination of milk and meat produced on the territories affected by the Chernobyl accident". Report of UN Project E 11 – IAEA-TECDOC-926, February 1997.
3. Federal Action Program "Overcoming the consequences of radiation accidents for the period 2001 - 2010"(State document RF, in Russian).
4. Letter from RosPotrebNadzor on Nov 26, 2007. (State document RF, in Russian).
5. Recommendations " The use of preparations containing ferrocyanide in a lead-cadmium pollution area", the Ministry of Agriculture of the Sverdlovsk region, Ekaterinburg, 2000. (in Russian).
6. International Symposium "Agroecological security in technogenesis conditions", Kazan, 2006.
7. Letter from N.V.Denin, (Governor of the Bryansk region) to Sergei Shoigu (Minister of Emergencies), April 13, 2006.
8. Letter from N.V.Denin, (Governor of the Bryansk region) to Mikhail Fradkov (Russian Prime Minister), Feb 25,.2005.
9. Information about the radiation situation on the territory of south-western districts of the Bryansk region, FGU "Bryanskvetradiologiya" from Nov 28, 2007.